Английский язык - практическая работа
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Ситуация 1. Внимательно прочитайте следующий фрагмент текста и составьте к нему аннотацию на русском языке.
Various popular symbols used to identify political parties are called party emblems. In the past these symbols on election ballots were important to illiterate voter as a means of identifying the candidates for whom they wished to vote. Party emblems are not always the same from year to year or from state to state. Common symbols of the Republican Party have been the elephant and the eagle. The Democratic Party has used a donkey, the Statue of Liberty, a five-pointed star and a rooster as symbols. Minor parties have used other emblems.
Ситуация 2. Внимательно прочитайте следующий фрагмент текста и составьте к нему аннотацию на русском языке.
The administrative business of the nation is conducted by Secretaries who form the Cabinet. They are appointed by the President but their nomination must be confirmed by the Senate. The Cabinet is a kind of an advisory group to the President which has developed by custom rather than by the provisions of the Construction. The Vice-President likewise participates in the cabinet meetings. The cabinet members are: the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, the Postmaster General, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Labour, and the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare. As chief executive officer, the President can at his discretion remove any Secretary.
The Executive Office of the President is represented by a group of agencies, First of all, there are: the White House Office, the Bureau of the Budget, the National Security Council, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Council of Economic Advisers, and the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization. These are not advisory bodies but the bodies which carry out administrative functions.
The whole legislative power in USA is vested in the Congress. There are two chambers in the US Congress: the Senate and the House of representatives. Besides the legislative function the Senate is entrusted with the power of ratifying or rejecting all treaties made by the President.
Ситуация 3. Внимательно прочитайте следующий фрагмент текста и составьте к нему аннотацию на английском языке.
В конституции США содержатся некоторые общие положения по избирательному праву. В ней изложены требования к кандидатам, баллотирующимся на посты президента, вице-президента, сенаторов и членов палаты представителей. Как правило, это требования в отношении возраста, оседлости и гражданства. Те кандидаты, которые вполне удовлетворяют всем этим требованиям, считаются подходящими для занятий соответствующих политических должностей.
Ценз оседлости требует постоянного проживания человека в одном и том же месте для получения права на участие в голосовании. Ценз оседлости требует проживания в одном месте в течение ряда месяцев, хотя, в зависимости от штата, срок может быть разным.
Кроме того, в ряде штатов существует так называемый образовательный ценз (от участвующего в голосовании требуется, чтобы он мог говорить и писать по-английски, чтобы он знал, как истолковать конституцию США и т.д.).
Наконец, следует отметить, что в некоторых штатах взбирается избирательный налог с каждого, кто участвует в голосовании.
Ситуация 4. Внимательно прочитайте следующий фрагмент текста и составьте к нему аннотацию на английском языке.
Избиратели регистрируются у чиновников округов или городов, а также в местных комиссиях по выборам. Во время регистрации избиратель должен предъявить свое удостоверение личности. Это делается для того, чтобы не допустить обмана. За ходом выборов следит избирательная комиссия, состоящая, как правило, из двух чиновников, каждый из которых выступает в качестве представителя крупной партии, а также третьего члена комиссии, входящего в комиссию по должности. Обычно это - шериф, судья округа или клерк. До проведения первичных или общих выборов указанной комиссией назначаются чиновники по выборам, которые направляются в соответствующий избирательный участок, и кроме того, комиссия занимается вопросами подбора места для голосования, после голосования производится подсчет бюллетеней, полученные результаты заносятся в сводки, поступающие в распоряжение комиссии по выборам, которая официально подсчитывает общие результаты по участкам.
Ситуация 5. Внимательно прочитайте следующий фрагмент текста и составьте к нему аннотацию на английском языке.
Согласно Конституции США, управление страной осуществляется тремя органами власти: исполнительным, законодательным и юридическим. Исполнительная власть принадлежит президенту США, который занимает свой пост в течение четырех лет и избирается на свою должность вместе с вице-президентом.
В обязанности и полномочия президента, упомянутые в Конституции США, в частности входят следующие. Президент является главнокомандующим вооруженных сил. Он заключает договоры, назначает послов в иностранных государствах, а также других высших должностных лиц. В круг его обязанностей входит также задача следить за строгим исполнением федеральных законов. Отсюда вытекает, что по Конституции президент имеет некоторые полномочия в области контроля деятельности военного ведомства, несет ответственность за проведение внешнеполитического курса страны, а также отвечает за претворение в жизнь федеральных программ.
Ситуация 6. Внимательно прочитайте следующий фрагмент текста и составьте к нему аннотацию на русском языке.
THE BASIC LAW: GENESIS, SCOPE AND INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT
The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany is a catalogue of fundamental norms setting out conditions under which the state derives authority; it contains rules organizing and determining procedures for the exercise of that authority and recognizes individual freedoms as limits to it. The Basic Law was promulgated on 23 May 1949 and entered into force on the same day. Initially it acquired the force of law only in those territories, which had been placed under the authority of the American, British, and French occupying powers following the unconditional surrender of the national socialist government on 8 May 1945. In the Soviet zone of occupation the third Peoples Congress approved the Constitution of the German Democratic Republic on 30 May 1949. German territory was therefore divided and placed under two different legal systems as a result of the four occupying powers, with their diametrically opposed political ideas. Failing to agree on a single solution which could be applied throughout Germany.
Between 1945 and 1948 the three western occupying forces embarked upon creating democratic administrations, starting at the local level. Having re-modelled the western territories of the former Reich into the Lander, they instructed their Land prime ministers to draw up a constitution which would join together the three western zones on a federal basis. Once expels at the Constitutional Conference on Like Herrenchiem had completed the constitutional groundwork, the Parliamentary Council, its members elected by the Land parliaments, commenced deliberations in Bonn on 1 September 1948. On 8 May 1949 the Council finalized a version of the Basic Law which the three allied military governors subsequently approved on 12 May. Their approval was required because, while the allies had consciously refrained from annexing German territory in 1945, their Berlin Declaration of 5 June 1945 clearly stated that Germanys sovereign rights bad been forfeited with the capitulation. The Basic Law received indirect democratic legitimization when accepted by the necessary majority in the Land parliaments, as announced on 23 May 1949, and was promulgated on page 1 of the Federal Law Gazette.
The Basic Law was not explicitly called a constitution, as its normative content would have allowed, because it was conceived as an interim solution applicable until reunification became possible. This is also clear from the Preamble to earlier versions of the Basic Law, which calls upon the German people to "achieve in free self-determination the unity and freedom of Germany" and Article 146 of earlier versions, which states that the Basic Law would cease to be in force on the day on which a constitution adopted by a free decision of the German people came into force. However, reunification is not the only eventuality provided for in the Basic Law: from the earliest days it also foresaw integration of the Federal Republic in the international community. This meant not only integration in terms of international law (Articles 25 and 59) but also integration in a united Europe and in international organizations (Article 24(1)) and in systems of collective security (Article 24(2)), and was intended as a departure from rigid nationalistic thinking and actions.
Ситуация 7. Внимательно прочитайте следующий фрагмент текста и составьте к нему аннотацию на русском языке.
THE CONSTITUTIONAL ORDER OF THE BASIC LAW
1. Basic rights
Basic rights are rights of defence against the state. They guarantee the principle that individuals have an unlimited right to privacy, while all incursions by the state require justification. This is expressed by the inclusion in most basic rights of a statutory reservation. In other words, a basic right may be restricted only by pursuant to a law which, according to the first sentence of Article 19(1), must be generally applicable, and may not encroach upon the essence of a basic right (Article 19(2)). Any law passed which restricts basic rights must pursue an aim consistent with the Basic Law and use appropriate and necessary means so as to interfere with the basic right concerned as little as possible (principle of proportionality). An absolute limit is set on state authority not only in Article 19(2) but also in Article 102, which abolishes capital punishment.
Given that all state authority is bound by the basic rights (Article 1(3)) and the social state is recognized as a constitutional principle (Article 20(1)) the state must not only respect basic rights as formally guaranteed freedoms, it must also endeavor to establish an economic and social order which does not obstruct the exercise of individuals freedoms and which attempts to guard against violations of legal interests protected by the basic rights. Hence the state has a duly to provide protection (e.g. against dangers to individual basic rights posed by high-risk technologies and in the health sector generally). Yet in complying with that duty the legislator does not have a right to pursue policies which violate basic rights; instead, it must weigh the object of protection against those rights which the protective measure violates. Although the exercise of particular basic rights may presuppose some form of action by the state (e.g. provision of training in state-run schools and universities in the framework of Article 12(1)), this does not mean that individuals have a subjective right to specific services; yet a right of equal access to state services, which is to be measured against Article 3 of the Basic Law, does apply. Basic rights also have a procedural law element: the legislator must structure - criminal or administrative procedural law giving individuals the capacity to assert their basic rights, therefore preventing them from becoming an object of state action. Finally, Article 19(4) gives one procedural right the status of a basic right: it guarantees protection from the courts where basic rights are violated by public authority and hence assists individuals to assert their rights.
Article 1(2) of the Basic law clearly states that human rights are inalienable. Yet not all basic rights are drafted as unrestricted human rights: a distinction is made between those which recognize subjective rights enjoyed by all individuals and those which express rights enjoyed only by Germans (Articles 8, 9, 11 and 12). The Basic Law states that anyone with German citizenship is a German, though under Article 4(1) of the Reich and Citizenship Law any child born to a German is also a German (ins sanguinis) Article 116(1) of the Basic Law stipulates that refugees or expellees or their spouses or descendants admitted to the territory of the German Reich within the frontiers of 31 December 1937 and presumed to be of German ethnic origin are also considered Germans. Article 19(3) states that the basic rights also apply to domestic legal persons, though only to the extent that the rights are relevant to their particular activity.
Ситуация 8. Внимательно прочитайте следующий фрагмент текста и составьте к нему аннотацию на русском языке.
I. BASIC RIGHTS
Article 1 (Human dignity)
(1) Human dignity shall be inviolable. To respect and protect it shall be the duty of all state authority.
(2) The German people therefore acknowledge inviolable and inalienable human rights as the basis of every community, of peace and of justice in the world.
(3) The following basic rights shall bind the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary as directly applicable law.
Article 2 (Personal freedoms)
(1) Every person shall have the right to free development of his personality insofar as he does no; violate the rights of others or offend against the constitutional order or the moral law.
(2) Every person shall have the right to life and physical integrity Freedom of the person shall be inviolable. These rights may be interfered with only pursuant to a law.
Article 3 (Equality before the law)
(1) All persons shall be equal before the law.
(2) Men and women shall have equal rights. The state shall promote the actual implementation of equal fights for women and men and take steps to eliminate disadvantages that now exist.
(3) No person shall be favored or disfavored because of sex, parentage, race, Sang sage, homeland and origin, faith, or religions or political opinions. No person shall be disfavored because of disability.
Article 4 (Freedom of faith, conscience, and creed)
(1) Freedom of faith and of conscience, and freedom to profess a religious or philosophical creed, shill be inviolable.
(2) The undisturbed practice of religion shall be guaranteed.
(3) No person shall be compelled against his conscience to render military service involving the use of arms. Details shall be regulated by a federal law.
Article 5 (Freedom of expression)
(1) Every person shall have the right freely to express and disseminate his opinions in speech, writing, and pictures and to inform himself without hindrance from generally accessible sources. Freedom of the press and freedom of reporting by means of broadcasts and films shah be guaranteed. There shall be no censorship.
(2) These rights shall find their limits in the provisions of general laws, in provisions for the protection of young persons, and in the right to personal honor
Ситуация 9. Внимательно прочитайте следующий фрагмент текста и составьте к нему аннотацию на русском языке.
THE JUDICIARY Article 92 (The courts)
The judicial power shall be vested in the judges; it shall be exercised by the Federal Constitutional Court, by the federal courts provided for in this Basic Law, and by the courts of the Lander.
Article 93 (Federal Constitutional Court: jurisdiction)
(1) The Federal Constitutional Court shall rule:
1. on the interpretation of this Basic Law in the event of disputes concerning the extent of the rights and duties of a supreme federal body or of other parties vested with rights of their own by this Basic Law or by the rules of procedure of a supreme federal body;
2. in the event of disagreements or doubts respecting the formal or substantive compatibility of federal law or Land law with this Basic Law, or the compatibility of Land law with other federal law, on application of the Federal Government, of a Land government, or of one third of the Members of the Bundestag;
2a. in the event of disagreements whether a law meets the requirements of paragraph (2) of Article 72, on
application of the Bundestag or of the government or legislature of a Land;
3. in the event of disagreements respecting the rights and duties of the Federation and the Lander, especially in the execution of federal law by the Lander and in the exercise of federal oversight;
4. on other disputes involving public law between the Federation and the Lander, between different Lander, or within a Land, unless there is recourse to another court;
4a. on constitutional complaints, which may be filed by any person alleging that one of his basic rights
or one of his rights under paragraph (4) of Article 20 or under Article 33, 38, 101, 103, or 104 has
been infringed by public authority; 4b. on constitutional complaints filed by municipalities or
associations of municipalities on the ground that their right to self-government under Article 28 has
been infringed by a law; in the case of infringement by a Land law, however, only if the law cannot
be challenged in the constitutional court of the Land;
5. in the other instances provided for in this Basic Law.
(2) The Federal Constitutional Court shall also rule on such other matters as may he assigned to it by a
Ситуация 10. Внимательно прочитайте следующий фрагмент текста и составьте к нему аннотацию на русском языке.
Article 104 (Legal guarantees in the event of detention)
(1) Freedom of the person may be restricted only pursuant to a formal law and only in
compliance with the procedures prescribed therein. Persons in custody may not be
subjected to mental or physical mistreatment.
(2) Only a judge may rule upon the permissibility or continuation of any deprivation of freedom.
If such a deprivation is not based on a judicial order, a judicial decision shall be obtained
without delay. The police may hold no one in custody on their own authority beyond the
end of the day following the arrest. Details shall be regulated by a law.
(3) Any person provisionally detained on suspicion of having committed a criminal offense
shall be brought before a judge no later than the day following his arrest; the judge shall
inform him of the reasons for the arrest, examine him, and give him an opportunity to raise
objections. The judge shall, without delay, either issue a written arrest warrant setting forth
the reasons there for or order his release.
(4) A relative or a person enjoying the confidence of the person in custody shall he notified
without delay of any judicial decision imposing or continuing a deprivation of freedom.